Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic properties
2-Amino-3-Phenylpropanoic acid (L-Phenylalanine) acts as an appetite suppressant by administrating the release of an intestinal hormone-cholecystokinin(CCK)-which signals the brain to feel satisfied after eating. Alpha-Amino-p-Hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid (Alpha-Amino-p-Hydroxy-hydro-cinnamic acid) plays several important roles in metabolism, it is a precursor to the thyroid hormones and other important biological regulators like the catecholammes. Thyroid hormones stimulate a number of metabolic processes. The catecholammes – dopamine, nor-epinephrine and epinephrine are derived from Alpha-Amino-p-Hydroxy-hydro-cinnamic acid. The product of Alpha-amino-p-Hydroxy-hydro-cinnamic acid hydroxylation is dopa, once formed, dopa under goes decarboxcilation to give dopamine which serves as a substrate for the formation of nor-epinephrine, which in turn is methylated to give epinephrine. The release of fat from adipose tissue is controlled hormonally, to meet the needs for energy generation. In adipose tissue the primary hormonal effect are mediated by epinephrine which is one of the catecholammes resulting from Alpha-Amino-p-hydroxy-hydro-cinnamic acid metabolism.
2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid (L-Phenylalanine)
Adsorption: The metabolite, tyrosine slightly increased in concentration in plasma, for as long as three hours after ingestion of L-phenylalanine.
Metabolism: L-phenylalanine is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine.
Elimination: Urinary excretion occurs for a small amount of the dose of L-phenylalanine.
Alpha-Amino-p-Hydroxy-hydro-cinnamic acid (L-Tyrosine)
Tyrosine is a nonessential amino acid found in soy products, chicken, fish, almonds, avocados, bananas, dairy products, lima beans, pumpkin seeds, and sesame seeds. Tyrosine is produced from endogenous phenylalanine, which is an essential amino acid.
Metabolism: According to secondary sources, L-tyrosine is broken down via an alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent transamination through tyrosine transaminase to para-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. The next oxidation step is catalyzed by p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate-dioxygenase via oxidation, resulting in a splitting off of CO2homogentisate (2,5-dihydroxyphenyl-1-acetate); the aromatic ring of homogentisate is then split using an additional dioxygenase; homogentisate-oxygenase and maleylacetoacetate are created with the incorporation of O2. Fumarylacetate is created via maleylacetoacetate-cis-trans-isomerase with glutathione as a coenzyme. Fumarylacetoacetate is then split via fumarylacetoacetate-hydrolase through the addition of a water molecule. Fumarate, also a metabolite of the citric acid cycle, and acetoacetate (3-ketobutyroate) are released.
AppAway is used as a workout supplement that helps with weight management in conjunction with a kilojoule restricted diet.